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A turbo is driven by Exhaust gases and a SC is Belt driven. Normally, turbo's are more efficient since they don't cause any parasitic drag on the engine BUT they also take a little longer to spool up. Of course, technology now a days has improved the spool up on turbo's tremendously so depending on the application, it may not be a big deal. SC's have power on demand because they are connected to the engine just like all your other accessories are, like your A/C and such. Of course, they also use a little power like your A/C as well but it's obviously compensated by the incease in power from the S/C.

Then you've got your different type's of S/C's but that's another subject entirely.
 

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The spool up time is almost nonexistent if your system is sized right, as well as the ceramic bearings spin free'r...
 
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