I borrowed the Workshop Manual and Wiring Diagrams Manual from the library and dug in:
Engine does not crank and starter relay does not click - Go to Pinpoint Test B
Pinpoint Test B:
B1 - PATS warning indicator does not flash when attempting to start; it is solid red
B2 - Starter relay test: OK on all counts
B3 - Battery test: no reason to suspect; new in 2011 and no signs of weakness
B4 - Check switched power to the starter relay: relay receives voltage > 10V
B5 - I skipped this for some reason
B6 - DNA, for manual transaxle only
B7 - DNA, for manual transaxle only
B8 - Check voltage to ignition switch: receives voltage > 10V
I then ran my own test: when in failure mode, the ignition switch also outputs > 10V on pin 1 to the ignition relay and pin 7 and to the circuit with the starter relay –> transmission range sender –> starter.
B9 - Check circuits (from ignition switch to starter relay) for open
This test is wrong as written. The second circuit referenced, 15-DAZ, does not exist. And the wire colors given for that circuit (GN/BY) don’t exist (BY is meaningless). And the first circuit referenced, 15-DA1, does not lead to the starter relay: it starts at C456 and goes to C16 on the CJB, powering fuses (incl. the headlamp switch, which works - so that run is OK); C16 forks to 15-DA2 and C70, which goes to the BJB and splices at S119 to 15-BB7, which goes to the ignition relay.
The test as written will ALWAYS yield an open-circuit result.
What is the actual path from ignition switch to starter relay?
Ignition switch pin 7 to starter relay pin 86 (aka pin 1 in the wiring diagram) over circuit 50-BB16 (GY/BK wire) is the only path between those components.
And that path does not suffer from an open on my car.
Devising my own tests from here:
Starter relay pin 87 (aka pin 5 in the wiring diagram) to transmission range sensor pin 6 on C438 tested at 0 ohms.
Bypassing the starter relay did not crank the starter.
Bypassing the starter relay and the transmission range sender did not crank the starter, but the starter solenoid relay did click, so the starter itself is implicated.
Advance Auto tested the starter and found that the gear drive did not extend. Replacing the starter motor solved the problem.
While I'm pointing out flaws in the manual, I'll note that only Pinpoint Test C has a test step that specifies a starter motor replacement. But Test C is for "Engine cranks slowly" in the Symptom Chart. The Symptom Chart also specifies a starter replacement under Actions for "Unusual starter motor noise," but neither of those applied in my case, where the correct starting point was "Engine does not crank and starter relay does not click."
Perhaps Ford issues manual Errata, but you have to subscribe to some service to get them.