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Old 03-27-2013, 09:37 AM   #21
klodkrawler05
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Wow!
in for more!

as someone who wants to fab his own header/exhaust at some point this thread is definitely going into my saved/inspiration threads.
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Old 03-27-2013, 01:24 PM   #22
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Quote:
Is it too close to the valve cover?
Good question. The turbo and collector are very close to the valve cover. I have an aluminum valve cover, so it is not an issue as far as that goes. I was originally concerned about the No. 4 COP because it is the closest non-metal item. I have an infared temp gun and I have been taking a lot of temp readings and was surprised at how cool this setup is running. The No.4 COP is only 5 degrees hotter than the No. 1, which is plenty far away from the heat. The highest temps I have recorded so far (after long driving and/or hard pulls) is 380 degrees F on the header and turbo exhaust housing. The highest temp I have recorded on the turbo center housing is 170 degrees F! I did not expect it to run this low, but I do not know what normal is? I run an oil cooler, so that would explain the low temps for the center housing I guess. I am only running 8 psi boost. I assume the temps will be much higher with more boost. What do you all think?
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Old 03-27-2013, 01:30 PM   #23
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Quote:
as someone who wants to fab his own header/exhaust at some point this thread is definitely going into my saved/inspiration threads.
I hope this thread helps you out. Feel free to ask questions or PM me if you want more info on this stuff.
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Old 03-27-2013, 05:02 PM   #24
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Please keep the pics and commentary coming. Can't wait to see the finished product.
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Old 03-27-2013, 10:45 PM   #25
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Its time to talk about the header design. As I mentioned before, I made my own NA header for this car. I have been doing header design/tuning research for a couple of years now and have learned a lot. The problem is when you put a turbo on the end of the header, it nullifies many of the design principles for NA header tuning. Additionally, there is very little info for tuning a header for turbo. I would say there is practically NO info at all. There are a few opinions and ideas, but not much to go on. So I had to use what little is available and come up with my own ideas for the rest. Feel free to disagree or add your own opinion here, I dont claim to know everything. Here goes....

PRIMARY PIPE DIAMETER= 1-5/8 OD

Primary pipe diameter is a critical factor in any header. The #1 problem people have here is going too big. Believe it or not, most applications would make more power with a smaller pipe, but we are so brainwashed with the "bigger is better" idea that many headers NA and turbo are simply too big. Picture this, when your exhaust gases exit the cylinder head, the pressure and velocity are at a certain level. If these gases enter a pipe that is much larger than the exhaust port on the head, you will lose pressure and velocity. Pressure and velocity are cirtical to spool a turbo. Why would you want to reduce it??? My answer, make the pipe diameter closely match the exhaust port on the head. It is not going to be a restriction unless you are running a pipe smaller than the exhaust port.

PRIMARY PIPE LENGTH= 20 inches as measured from the centerline of pipe

Length is important on a NA header because it determines the RPM range that you will create exhaust scavenging and power increase(assuming all other parameters are correct, which is rarely the case). When you put a turbo on the end of a header, the restriction destroys any exhaust scavenging effect. In my opinion, exhaust scavenging does not apply to a turbo header.

So how do you choose the length? In my case, I let the rest of the build determine the length. I chose the turbo location on looks, oil drain, and fitting everything else under the hood. After I built the collector, I just let the length be what it was. I wound up with 20 inch pipes. I am not too keen on short pipes. I believe that longer pipes reduce the occurrence of exhaust gases travelling back up an empty tube inbetween pulses. Remember, exhaust gases exit the head in "pulses" with relatively long time periods between the pulses where there is nothing. With short pipes, your pulse of gas will leave the pipe empty for a longer period of time in which gases from adjacent cylinders will travel back up the pipe and the next time your exhaust valve opens, it will be met with high pressure exhaust gas instead of an empty tube. In this case, your engine has to work harder to push the exhaust out of the cylinder. Log style manifolds are the worst case example of this. Since there is practically no runners at all, there is always high pressure/high heat exhaust gases from adjacent cylinders against your exhaust valves. The result is higher temps for the valves and your engine has to work harder to expel the exhaust when the valve is open. The advantage to log style manifolds and short tube manifolds is that since the exhaust gases are confined to such a small space, you can easily spool a turbo at lower rpmís. But I believe that most people overlook that it comes at a price by making exhaust gas flow inefficient.

What I tried to accomplish here is to get the best of both worlds. High turbo spooling efficiency without all the heat and restriction on exhaust gas flow.

EQUAL LENGTH PIPES all within 1 inch from longest to shortest

Equal length pipes is very important for a NA engine because it ensures exhaust gases are scavenged equally and at same rpmís. If your pipes are not equal(greater than 2 inch difference), then you have an inbalance where you are losing out on power.

On a turbo header, equal length pipes further increases spooling efficiency. The reason is because the exhaust pulses will reach the turbine in a even manner, 1-3-4-2-1-3-4-2-1-3-4-2-. If your pipes are unequal, your exhaust pulses may reach the turbine something like this, 1pause3pause4-2-1pause3pause4-2-1. This does not mean that you cannot spool a turbo, it just means that equal length will spool more efficiently.

THE COLLECTOR

The collector design is critical in exhaust gas flow and maintaining pressure/velocity, but it is probably the most neglected part of a header design. I spent the majority of my efforts on the collector and I would suggest that if you make a header, do the same.

The first issue is maintaining good exhaust gas flow. This is done with the ďmergeĒ (distance in between 4 pipes and 1 pipe). The merge I made is 6 inches long. A good merge is 4 to 6 inches long. A poor merge is less than 4 inches long. A terrible merge is less than 2 inches long. The only good thing I could say about a 2 inch merge is that at least the pressure should remain high, there is not much room for expansion, but it will not flow very well compared to a longer merge. On the opposite side, a 6 inch merge creates problems too. It leaves a fairly large open area inside the collector which will allow gases to expand and lose velocity/pressure. To correct this, I hand made my collector with very deep creases on the sides, this coupled with the spear shaped center keeps the gases tight and does not allow as much gas expansion through the merge. It also minimizes the chances of exhaust gases entering an adjacent pipe and travelling back up the header.

IN/OUT RATIO

The In/Out Ratio is another very important part of the collector on an NA header. This is the ratio of the total area of the primary pipes entering the collector vs. the area of the pipe exiting the collector. This header has four 1 5/8 inch pipes to a 2.5 inch pipe. This is a good ratio for a NA header. I donít have a clue what is a good ratio for a turbo header! But this seems to work great so far.

Please donít take all of this as bashing or pointing out problems with other peoples stuff. Most header designs are limited by the space they have to occupy. Example: If you locate the turbo behind the engine, there is no way you will fit a 6 inch collector and long primary pipes. What I am trying to do is show what efficiencies can be made with the fewest compromises. Remember, these are just my ideas/theories. I have no direct evidence at this time to prove anything other than just telling you how well it runs.
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Old 03-27-2013, 11:17 PM   #26
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Here are pics of the heat shields and turbo mounted and a close up of the oil drain. I wanted to check a couple of things before I installed the turbo for good, so I hooked up the oil pressure and drain and then started the engine still NA. Verified no leaks and the drain works well, no surprise, it may be one of the shortest oil drains ever created!

Here is something interesting. I have heard a lot of arguments as to use an oil restrictor or not on a journal bearing turbo(oil restrictor for a journal bearing is around .060 inch, not like a ball bearing turbo). Most opinions are based on if your oil drain can handle that much oil without a restrictor. I ran across something one day that said that without a restrictor, your oil pressure will "side load" the shaft against the bearing. The oil is fed to the bearings from a single hole inside the center housing bearing race pretty much just like oil is fed to your crankshaft main bearings. The big difference being that in a turbo, both the bearing and shaft spin independently.

With no oil pressure, the turbo shaft spins easily by putting your finger on the compressor blade(remember, the turbo is not actually hooked up, just the oil) I hooked up the oil pressure without restrictor and started the engine and let it idle. Guess what? THE TURBO SHAFT WAS STUCK!!! I did not expect this. I had to put noticeable pressure on the compressor blades with my fingers to get it to spin. Once I got it to spin, it seemed to spin freely. But when I let it come to a stop, it was stuck again by the oil pressure. So I guess the theory is true about too much oil pressure side loading the bearings.

Next, I tried the same thing using the restrictor that was on the turbo when I bought it. I believe it is an .065. It did not stick quite as bad, but still was noticeably more than with no oil pressure at all. So I decided to run with the restrictor.

One thing I would like to note is I don't think this is too big a deal once the turbo is spinning. I think the faster it spins, the less affect the oil pressure will have on side loading the bearing. I found it very interesting though.





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Old 03-28-2013, 12:06 AM   #27
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Keep up the posts. It's a great read
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Old 03-28-2013, 06:34 PM   #28
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MAF Setup

Sorry, I did not take any pics of the MAF setup. Sometimes I get so involved with what I am doing, that I forget all about the camera. I installed the stock MAF sensor in a 3 inch O.D. tube. It had about 6" of straight tube before the MAF and 4" of straight tube after the MAF. I recalibrated the MAF curve for the change in area. It ran like CRAP! MAF counts very unstable. So I did a couple of things to correct this. I made an insert that fits perfectly inside the 3" tube that has an I.D. of 2.6 inches. This insert is approx 4" long, 2" before the MAF and 2" after. I took the stock air straightener and trimmed it down so it fits snugly inside the 3" tube. The air straightener is butted up against the insert just before the MAF sensor. Recalibrated the MAF curve for the insert. Runs like a dream! Stock like driveability and MAF counts are very stable at idle. This setup is just big enough so that I have not had to use the MAFia yet. At 8psi boost, I am getting about 930/940 MAF counts max. My plan is to continue to use this MAF setup since it drives so nicely and use the MAFia when I add more boost.
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Old 03-28-2013, 07:25 PM   #29
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INTERCOOLER









I used an air-to-water intercooler setup from Frozenboost.com. I believe most people misunderstand air-to-water intercoolers. I had the wrong idea about them myself until I met someone that only uses air-to-water and he got me hooked. First thing, a lot of people think air-to-water is for drag racing only...not true. They are popular for drag racing because you can run an ice-box and have IAT's colder than ambient. However, you do not have to run an icebox and they work great on the street. Still supposed to be more efficient than air-to-air, but I do not know for sure. Driving around normally, my IAT's are kept exactly at ambient according to datalog. Here is what happens under boost, example: Ambient=76 degrees . WOT 3rd gear pull, IAT gradually climbs to 100 degrees by the end of the pull. Do you guys think this is good for 8lbs of boost? I do not have anything to compare it to.

Besides the air temps, there are other advantages to air-to-water. The intake path is much shorter since the intercooler is very small and can be mounted next to the turbo. As you can see from the pics, my flow goes like this. Exit the turbo immediately into the BOV pipe, immediately into intercooler, makes a loop under the frame up into the MAF tube and 90 degree turn into throttle body. I think my total length is about 4-5 feet. Also, there is almost zero pressure drop across the intercooler.

There are some disadvantages also. This setup is high maintenance compared to air-to-air. You have to get all the air bled out of the system, which takes some time. You have to install a switch to turn the pump on and off. Other than that, it is not hard to install, just uses common plumbing parts and 3/4 water hose found at hardware stores. Also, you dont have to run the pump all the time. Example: when I drive to work in the mornings, I dont turn it on. It is cool out and I dont drive aggressively. When I go home in the afternoon, I turn the pump on because it is warmer and I am more likely to engage in spirited driving. Another thing to remember is that if something goes wrong, pump malfunction, water leak, etc, it is no big deal. You can drive just fine, the ECU will pull timing based on IAT if setup correctly, you will just not make as much power as with the water system running correctly. Another thing to consider is that if you live in a cold climate you might have issues. I use straight distilled water, but dont see many freezing temps in Florida. Further north, your water system would freeze up hard and probably break something. Additionally, the pump is just a bilge pump and is not designed for antifreeze. There is some info on the website that says they successfully used the pump with antifreeze with no issues, they just cannot guarantee it.

Overall, I love it, but it is definitely not for everyone.
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Old 03-28-2013, 08:59 PM   #30
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Nice through build, really like your approach.
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