So many possibilities....
You listed most of them, guessing which is most likely would need more info. (or being there). For example, except for catastrophic failure, tire noise tends to develop over time as they wear. On another hand, exhausts can be damaged easily and create sudden noise.
Bearings USUALLY fail immediately OR after long use, however there are a small number of random failures at any mileage.
We'll be interested to see what this one turns out to be...