How a car works.... - Ford Focus Forum, Ford Focus ST Forum, Ford Focus RS Forum
Ford Focus Forum
HomeContact UsAbout UsGalleryDiscussion ForumsMarketplace


Go Back   Ford Focus Forum, Ford Focus ST Forum, Ford Focus RS Forum > Ford Focus Discussions > General Car Chat Lounge

General Car Chat Lounge Discussion Forum relating to nonspecific Ford Focus models, car purchasing, auto industry news and any car talk.

Search This Forum | Image Search | Advanced Search    
FocusFest FocusFanatics Merchandise

Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes
Old 08-14-2012, 01:18 PM   #1
Focus Enthusiast
 
Join Date: Jul 2012
Fan#: 101157
Location: Austin, TX
What I Drive: 2002

Posts: 178
FF Reputation: 1 focusauto01 Good Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (0)
How a car works....

Well I'm having to write an essay for my Auto Technician School I'm attending. The essay is to explain: The basic process of how a vehicle operates and the process of Engine Operation on a Common Vehicle Today. My paper is pretty long, but is simple to read, and explains all the basic concept, (I hope). So maybe some of you want to refresh your memory or learn something you didn't know! Hope this helps, let me know what you think of my paper!


Vehicles are very complex, they use a variety of components to operate correctly and efficiently. Today's common vehicles contain seven major operating systems, which operate the vehicle. The seven major systems are; the Engine System, Brake System, Suspension and Steering System, Transmission and trans axle, Drive Train, Electrical and Electrical Components system, and the Heat and Air (Passenger Comfort System).
The Engine, is the vehicles main source of power. The engine powers all the other components on the vehicle. Most of today's automobiles contain 4-stroke, internal combustion, engines. In an internal combustion engine, the fuel and air mixture is burned inside the engine.
Brake System, is used on automobiles in order to slow or stop the wheels.
There are two types of braking systems. A disc brake setup or a drum brake setup. Today's brake systems are complex and contains special feature called ABS. Known as Anti-Braking System, which is used to prevent the wheels from locking or skidding under heavily applied pressure of the brakes.
Suspension and Steering system is used on vehicles to give the driver the ability to control the vehicle. A vehicles suspension system is made up of many components including; heavy duty springs, shocks, and struts to help absorb bumps and offer a smooth ride and keep the tires in contact with the ground. A vehicles steering system, gives the driver of the automobile the ability to control and turn the vehicle. Power Assist or Power Steering is used today to help make the turning of the steering wheel easier. Power Steering works by a pump pressurizing fluids into the vehicles steering system, thus making the steering easier to turn.
The transmission and trans axle system, allow the vehicle to change speeds. There are two types of transmissions an automatic and a manual. Automatics most often contain 3-4 gears. A manual usually contains 4-5 gears. Modern vehicles contain trans-axles which combine the drive train and transmission in one component, thus using less room.
The drive train is a system that connects the engine and transmission to the wheels. There are three types of drive trains; front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive, and four-wheel drive. The different drive trains are used for a variety of different applications.
Electrical and Electrical components system, are known as a vehicles brains. Electronic systems control the battery, charging system, head lights, signal circuits, starter system, all accessory circuits, and engine control systems. All electrical systems operate on DC (Direct Current), which is a constant 12V electrical voltage. Anything electronic operates off battery; however a separate electronic system is used for re-charging the battery.
The Heater and Air Conditioner System, also known as the Passenger Comfort System, is used to simply make the passenger comfortable. The passenger comfort system uses engine heat, to produxe passenger heat. The air conditioner uses a compressor to produce air, which is blown into the passenger area.
The most complex system of an automobile is the Engine. The engine uses many components to function properly. An engine contains cylinders, which are drilled in the engine block. Pistons, which are a metal shaped component that moves up and down in the cylinder. Cylinder Head, which is bolted on top of the cylinder. When a piston is positioned at the top of the cylinder, there is a small space left, this space is called the combustion chamber. In the combustion chambers fuel and air mixture is ignited and burned to produce power. When air and fuel is mixed, combined they produce a small explosion that forces the piston down. Above the combustion chamber, is the Spark Plug, which is threaded into the holes of the cylinder head. The bottom of the plug sits inside the cylinder head, into the combustion chamber. The spark plug produces sparks that ignites in the fuel and air mixture. The sparking action is controlled by the ignition. The bottom of the piston is connected to a crankshaft and rod. When the piston is pushed down, it sends the crankshaft into a rotary motion. When the piston is at the very top of the cylinder this is known as Top Dead Center. When the piston is positioned at the bottom of the cylinder this is known as Bottom Dead Center. The stroke is the distance the piston has to travel from TDC to BDC. The piston also contains horizontal groves cut into the piston. These grooves hold metal rings called Piston Rings. Piston rings are stretched around the piston, and push outward on the cylinder wall, forming a tight seal. This tight seal, is needed for the engine to operate correctly.
An engine contains four stages of engine. Those stages are as follows. Intake Stage, Compression stage, Power Stage, and the Exhaust Stage. In the intake stage, air and fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder through the intake valve. During the intake stage, the piston moves down and a vaccum is created, which sucks the air and fuel mixture into the cylinder. When the Piston reaches BDC (Bottom Dead Center), the compression stage begins. During the compression stage, both valves close, the piston moves upward compressing the fuel and air mixture. The mixture is then trapped in the combustion chamber. Compressing the mixture tightly, will make the engine burn more efficiently and produce more power. As the Piston reaches Top Dead Center, the ignition system causes a spark. When this occurs, an explosion immediately takes place. The process of the fuel and air mixture burning is called the Power Stage. When ignited, the gases expand with great force, thus forcing the piston down with great force. This cause the rod and crank to turn in the rotary motion, I mentioned above. This power stage continues until the Piston reaches the BDC. The piston then moves upward in the cylinder, and just the exhaust valve opens this time. As the piston moves up, it forces the remaining gases out through the exhaust valve. Once the Piston reaches TDC Again, the cycle then starts over. 4-stroke engines will use these same four stages over and over. Once the 4-stroke completes the four stages, one cycle is complete. A two stroke on the other hand, would complete all four stages in only 2-strokes. A quick tip, automobiles crankshaft usually makes 500 to 6,000 Revelations per minute. Something else you might be interested I would like to lastly cover in my essay is; How our Engines are rated today. Engines today are usually rated in two different ways today. They are rated by the amount of power it produces and the size of the engine. When being rated by the amount of power they produce, the term Horsepower comes in mind. One Horsepower equals to 550 lbs. of work. The displacement of an engine is also used to rate the engine sometimes. Displacement refers to the space inside the engine where the air-fuel mixture is burned. This is measured in Units of Volume. The metric measurement would be called "Liters". Another way an engine can be rated, is by its compression ration. The ratio of the largest cylinder volume to the smallest cylinder volume, is called Compression ratio. Compression effects the amount of power an automobile produces. Most automobiles produce between 5:1 and 9:1 Compression ratios for every day driving applications.
As I mentioned earlier, an automobile is very complex, with many different components and operating systems. I hope this essay gave you some useful information and an accurate descritption of how the automobile fuctions and how the engine works!



focusauto01 is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 
Old 08-14-2012, 02:17 PM   #2
Quarter Tank Racer
 
Malibooya's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2009
Fan#: 68054
Location: NYC, NY
What I Drive: 2003 Pitch Black ZX3

Posts: 2,124
Points 3,455, Level 36
Points: 3,455, Level: 36 Points: 3,455, Level: 36 Points: 3,455, Level: 36
Level Up 70% Completed
Level up: 70% Level up: 70% Level up: 70%
Forum Activity 3%
Activity: 3% Activity: 3% Activity: 3%
FF Reputation: 7 Malibooya Good Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (1)
Could you throw all of this into a public Google Doc so it's not murder on the eyes?
__________________
Quote:
Originally Posted by LouBomb
Omaha is worthless besides the World Series of College Baseball and horny white girls that for some odd reason find me attractive.
Malibooya is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Old 08-14-2012, 03:15 PM   #3
Focus Enthusiast
 
Montag's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2011
Fan#: 81977
Location: Knoxville, TN
What I Drive: 1997 Olds Cutlass Supreme

Posts: 197
Points 548, Level 10
Points: 548, Level: 10 Points: 548, Level: 10 Points: 548, Level: 10
Level Up 96% Completed
Level up: 96% Level up: 96% Level up: 96%
Forum Activity 0%
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
FF Reputation: 3 Montag Good Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (0)
OP- What is your native language?
__________________
1997 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme SL. 3100 v-6. Auto. 4-door. Green.
2004 Chevrolet Silverado. 5.3 v-8. Auto. 4wd. Long bed. White.
Montag is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Old 08-14-2012, 06:08 PM   #4
Focus Addict
 
6SPD_soul's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Fan#: 53637
Location: Gainesville, FL
What I Drive: 2003 Comp Orange EAP SVT

Posts: 1,488
Points 2,670, Level 31
Points: 2,670, Level: 31 Points: 2,670, Level: 31 Points: 2,670, Level: 31
Level Up 47% Completed
Level up: 47% Level up: 47% Level up: 47%
Forum Activity 6%
Activity: 6% Activity: 6% Activity: 6%
FF Reputation: 24 6SPD_soul Great Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (1)
Only major things I would change is you keep referring to the combustion cycle events as "stages" and I've never heard that, not necessarily wrong but everyone is used to reading "intake stroke" and so on. At the bottom you talk about compression ratios and state that between 5:1 and 9:1 is normal, but nothing I've ever heard of runs a compression ratio as low as 5:1 so I'd leave that bit out, around 9 or 10 to 1 very typical. You might mention that diesels do nut use spark to begin combustion and instead rely on very high compression ratios (18:1 and up into the early 20s is typical) so that the air is superheated with compression and self combusts with the fuel, that's kind of interesting as long as you're on the subject.
6SPD_soul is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Old 08-14-2012, 08:34 PM   #5
C2H5OH
 
iminhell's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2006
Fan#: 36222
Location: Darwin, MN
What I Drive: 2000 & 2001 ZX3's

Posts: 11,003
Points 19,430, Level 88
Points: 19,430, Level: 88 Points: 19,430, Level: 88 Points: 19,430, Level: 88
Level Up 16% Completed
Level up: 16% Level up: 16% Level up: 16%
Forum Activity 39%
Activity: 39% Activity: 39% Activity: 39%
FF Reputation: 53 iminhell Excellent Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (4)
Quote:
Originally Posted by focusauto01 View Post
Well I'm having to write an essay for my Auto Technician School I'm attending. The essay is to explain: The basic process of how a vehicle operates and the process of Engine Operation on a Common Vehicle Today. My paper is pretty long, but is simple to read, and explains all the basic concept, (I hope). So maybe some of you want to refresh your memory or learn something you didn't know! Hope this helps, let me know what you think of my paper!


Vehicles are very complex, they use a variety of components to operate correctly and efficiently. Today's common vehicles contain seven major operating systems, which operate the vehicle. The seven major systems are; the Engine System, Brake System, Suspension and Steering System, Transmission and trans axle, Drive Train, Electrical and Electrical Components system, and the Heat and Air (Passenger Comfort System).

The Engine, is the vehicles main source of power. The engine powers all the other components on the vehicle. Most of today's automobiles contain 4-stroke, internal combustion, engines. In an internal combustion engine, the fuel and air mixture is burned inside the engine. explain the term "4-stroke" further

The Braking System, is used on automobiles in order to slow or stop the wheels.
There are two types of braking systems. A disc brake setup or a drum brake setup or combination thereof. Today's brake systems are complex and contains special feature called (you can not use an acronym before the definition of the acronym) ABS. Known as Anti-Braking System, which is used to prevent the wheels from locking or skidding under heavily applied pressure of the brakes.

Suspension and Steering system is used on vehicles to give the driver the ability to control the vehicle. A vehicles suspension system is made up of many components including; heavy duty springs, shocks, and struts to help absorb bumps and offer a smooth ride and keep the tires in contact with the ground. A vehicles steering system, gives the driver (remove this red section) of the automobile the ability to control and turn the vehicle. Power Assist or Power Steering is used today to help make the turning of the steering wheel easier. Power Steering works by a pump pressurizing fluids into the vehicles steering system, thus making the steering easier to turn.
What about electronic steering which is more common in newer vehicles?

The transmission and trans axle system, allow the vehicle to change speeds. There are two types of transmissions an automatic and a manual What about CVT?. Automatics most often contain 3-4 gears. A manual usually contains 4-5 gears. Modern vehicles contain trans-axles which combine the drive train and transmission in one component, thus using less room.

The drive train is a system that connects the engine and transmission to the wheels. There are three types of drive trains; front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive, and four-wheel drive. The different drive trains are used for a variety of different applications.

Electrical and Electrical components system, are known as a vehicles brains. Electronic systems control the battery, charging system, head lights, signal circuits, starter system, all accessory circuits, and engine control systems. All electrical systems operate on DC (Direct Current), which is a constant 12V electrical voltage. Anything electronic operates off battery; however a separate electronic system is used for re-charging the battery.

The Heater and Air Conditioner System, also known as the Passenger Comfort System, is used to simply make the passenger comfortable. The passenger comfort system uses engine heat, to produxe passenger heat. The air conditioner uses a compressor to produce air, which is blown into the passenger area.

The most complex system of an automobile is the Engine (this is an opinion, does not belong in a "paper"). The engine uses many components to function properly. An engine contains cylinders, which are drilled in the engine block (start with the largest part to smallest, engine block then cylinders). Pistons, which are a metal shaped component that moves up and down in the cylinder (vague and confusing). Cylinder Head, which is bolted on top of the cylinder (engine block). When a piston is positioned at the top of the cylinder, there is a small space left, this space is called the combustion chamber. In the combustion chambers a fuel and air mixture is ignited and burned to produce power. When air and fuel is mixed, combined they produce a small explosion (this is overly large because of how wrong it is) that forces the piston down. Above the combustion chamber, is the Spark Plug, which is threaded into the holes of the cylinder head. The bottom of the plug sits inside the cylinder head, into the combustion chamber. The spark plug produces sparks that ignites in the fuel and air mixture. The sparking action is controlled by the ignition. The bottom of the piston is connected to a crankshaft and rod. When the piston is pushed down, it sends the crankshaft into a rotary motion. When the piston is at the very top of the cylinder this is known as Top Dead Center. When the piston is positioned at the bottom of the cylinder this is known as Bottom Dead Center. The stroke is the distance the piston has to travel from TDC to BDC. The piston also contains horizontal groves cut into the piston. These grooves hold metal rings called Piston Rings. Piston rings are stretched around the piston, and push outward on the cylinder wall, forming a tight seal. This tight seal, is needed for the engine to operate correctly.

An engine contains four stages of engine (confusing). Those stages are as follows. Intake Stage, Compression stage, Power Stage, and the Exhaust Stage. In the intake stage, air and fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder through the intake valve. During the intake stage, the piston moves down and a vaccum is created, which sucks the air and fuel mixture into the cylinder. When the Piston reaches BDC (Bottom Dead Center), the compression stage begins. During the compression stage, both valves close, the piston moves upward compressing the fuel and air mixture. The mixture is then trapped in the combustion chamber. Compressing the mixture tightly, will make the engine burn more efficiently and produce more power. As the Piston reaches Top Dead Center, the ignition system causes a spark. When this occurs, an explosion immediately takes place. The process of the fuel and air mixture burning is called the Power Stage. When ignited, the gases expand with great force, thus forcing the piston down with great force. This cause the rod and crank to turn in the rotary motion, I mentioned above. This power stage continues until the Piston reaches the BDC. The piston then moves upward in the cylinder, and just the exhaust valve opens this time. As the piston moves up, it forces the remaining gases out through the exhaust valve. Once the Piston reaches TDC Again, the cycle then starts over. 4-stroke engines will use these same four stages over and over. Once the 4-stroke completes the four stages, one cycle is complete. A two stroke on the other hand, would complete all four stages in only 2-strokes. A quick tip, automobiles crankshaft usually makes 500 to 6,000 Revelations per minute. Something else you might be interested I would like to lastly cover in my essay is; How our Engines are rated today. Engines today are usually rated in two different ways today. They are rated by the amount of power it produces and the size of the engine. When being rated by the amount of power they produce, the term Horsepower comes in mind. One Horsepower equals to 550 lbs. of work. The displacement of an engine is also used to rate the engine sometimes. Displacement refers to the space inside the engine where the air-fuel mixture is burned. This is measured in Units of Volume. The metric measurement would be called "Liters". Another way an engine can be rated, is by its compression ration. The ratio of the largest cylinder volume to the smallest cylinder volume, is called Compression ratio. Compression effects the amount of power an automobile produces. Most automobiles produce between 5:1 and 9:1 Compression ratios for every day driving applications.
As I mentioned earlier, an automobile is very complex, with many different components and operating systems. I hope this essay gave you some useful information and an accurate descritption of how the automobile fuctions and how the engine works!





I stopped reading/editing just after my red notes.
Frankly there is a lot that needs changing. You can never use an acronym before the definition, but after defining it you can use the acronym without the need to define it again.
Though you have the basics down, your method of explaining them needs work as well as the currency of your definitions; transmissions for example, you have to allow space for current technology and not limit yourself to older tech. Many current automatics are 4-8 speed and I can not think of a single 3 speed.

Then this little bit about compression ratios. That alone makes me think you flat out plagiarized your text from an old book. Which if that's the case I shouldn't help you in any way.

Regardless, I'm not sure what class this is for or where you're going to school, but I can say with some certainty that it isn't a good school; that is one concentrating on current (and future) automobile technology. For if they where your paper would reflect this, it doesn't.
I would advise you to change schools if you want a good education that will net you a good career.
__________________
121,000 members and still no sponsored racing.
iminhell is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Old 08-14-2012, 09:08 PM   #6
Focus Fanatic
 
Join Date: Jan 2009
Fan#: 62350
Location: queens, NY
What I Drive: 2003 eap svt

Posts: 2,656
Points 10,648, Level 68
Points: 10,648, Level: 68 Points: 10,648, Level: 68 Points: 10,648, Level: 68
Level Up 50% Completed
Level up: 50% Level up: 50% Level up: 50%
Forum Activity 29%
Activity: 29% Activity: 29% Activity: 29%
FF Reputation: 5 pasta Good Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (45)
intake compression power exhaust
pasta is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Old 08-15-2012, 07:05 AM   #7
Focus Enthusiast
 
Join Date: Jul 2012
Fan#: 101157
Location: Austin, TX
What I Drive: 2002

Posts: 178
FF Reputation: 1 focusauto01 Good Standing Member
Buy-Sell-Trade Rating: (0)
Quote:
Originally Posted by iminhell View Post
[/SIZE]




I stopped reading/editing just after my red notes.
Frankly there is a lot that needs changing. You can never use an acronym before the definition, but after defining it you can use the acronym without the need to define it again.
Though you have the basics down, your method of explaining them needs work as well as the currency of your definitions; transmissions for example, you have to allow space for current technology and not limit yourself to older tech. Many current automatics are 4-8 speed and I can not think of a single 3 speed.

Then this little bit about compression ratios. That alone makes me think you flat out plagiarized your text from an old book. Which if that's the case I shouldn't help you in any way.

Regardless, I'm not sure what class this is for or where you're going to school, but I can say with some certainty that it isn't a good school; that is one concentrating on current (and future) automobile technology. For if they where your paper would reflect this, it doesn't.
I would advise you to change schools if you want a good education that will net you a good career.
Hey, I didn't plagiarize, I took notes from my text book, then wrote my essay in my own words, based on my notes. I guess sometimes the statistics and numbers can vary or be different depending when the text book was printed. Mine is dated 2006.
focusauto01 is offline  
    Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Reply

Bookmarks & Social Networks

Quick Reply
Message:
Options

Register Now

In order to be able to post messages on the Ford Focus Forum, Ford Focus ST Forum, Ford Focus RS Forum forums, you must first register.
Please enter your desired user name, your email address and other required details in the form below.
User Name:
Password
Please enter a password for your user account. Note that passwords are case-sensitive.
Password:
Confirm Password:
Email Address
Please enter a valid email address for yourself.
Email Address:

Log-in

Human Verification

In order to verify that you are a human and not a spam bot, please enter the answer into the following box below based on the instructions contained in the graphic.



Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may post new threads
You may post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On



All times are GMT -5. The time now is 03:44 AM.


Copyright 2002-2015 FocusFanatics.com. All Rights Reserved : Privacy Policy : Advertise Information

Focus Fanatics Ford Focus Forum offers many fun ways for you to engage with other Ford Focus Owners from across the world. Whether it be about the aftermarket performance modifications, technical how-to's, European tuned suspension or awesome fuel economy similar to the Mazda CX-3, Audi S3, Mazda MX-5 Miata and Acura TLX. You can find all Ford Focus, Focus ST and Focus RS related information here. Join our Ford Focus discussion forums and chat with local Focus enthusiasts in your area. If you own other makes have a look at Challenger Hellcat Forum, Charger Hellcat Forum, Cadillac ATS-V Forum, Cadillac ATS Forum, Cadillac CTS-V Forum, Lexus RC-F Forum, Lexus GS-F Forum, Mercedes GLA Forum, Mercedes GLE Forum, Civic Type-R Forum and Volvo XC90 Forum.





Search Engine Optimization by vBSEO 3.6.1