A toe and/ or camber problem would cause, more or less, even wear around the entire circumference of the tire and localized to the inside or outside tread edge. If the tire was out of balance or if the shocks were bad, the wear could get wider or more pronounced in localized areas. A bad shock causes a cupping pattern around the circumference of the tread.
That said, and I'm taking a guess here, I think your problem is with the tires themselves. You either flat spotted them by locking up the brakes (only takes once) or the internal belts are separating (not as uncommon as it sounds). Either can cause the kind of wear you described. If the tires are relatively new I'd go back to the dealer for a tire inspection. Separating belts (aka de-lamination) can be determined by a visual inspection of both the inside and outside of the tire and is a warranty issue in most cases. Anyway, it sounds like you need to have them replaced.